Socio-Economic Impacts

“Through transportation, we can help ensure that the rungs on the ladder of opportunity aren’t so far apart — and that the American dream is still within reach for those who are willing to work for it.”

–Secretary Anthony Foxx

Ladders of Opportunity

Anthony Foxx became the 17th United States Secretary of Transportation (USDOT) on July 2, 2013. Secretary Foxx believes that transportation should not only bring people from one place to another, but should also create opportunities for the places and people in between. Over the past three years, he has leveraged USDOT resources to connect communities to economic opportunity while encouraging land use planners, engineers and decision-makers to revitalize and reconnect underserved communities.

Following Secretary Foxx’s lead, OKI has incorporated his Ladders of Opportunity approach to the development of this 2040 Plan Update. At a time when our region has so much infrastructure to repair and replace, we have a chance to do so in an inclusive way that will simultaneously expand economic opportunity and socioeconomic mobility. The choices we make about future transportation projects, the people they touch and places they connect, will play a role in determining how widely opportunity expands throughout the OKI region. Together, we can build a stronger and more connected region, a healthier economy and more vibrant communities.

How do the recommendations of this 2040 Plan impact the lives of our citizens and communities? The content of this webpage presents the socio-economic impacts of the Plan’s project recommendations.

Environmental Justice Populations

OKI has defined five social groups for which the impacts of transportation projects are being evaluated in accordance with federal and state Environmental Justice (EJ) guidelines. More information about EJ populations can be found under Planning Assumptions: Demographics.


OKI used a variety of quantitative performance measures and qualitative evaluation to assess whether Plan projects had any adverse or disproportionate impacts on the target populations as well as to ascertain whether benefits were equitably distributed.

Ohio County EJ Impacts

Butler County
900US 27South of Oxford between SR 732 and US 27New 2-lane US 27 parkway connector westwidening/relocationXX
3626Butler-Warren/Cox Connector RdBethany to SR 63New facility. 5 lane route from Cox Rd. to Gateway Blvd. Extensionwidening/relocationX
3662I-75Milliken RdNew interchange & widening Milliken from Cin-Day to Butler-Warrren Rdwidening/relocation
4872Hamilton Beltline Multi-use TrailRR line from North B St to Millville AvenueNew multi-use path on abandoned CSX railwaybike/pedXXX
4353SR 128Rossgate to Cin BrookvilleWiden to 3 laneswidening/relocation
4354SR 747Milliken to SR 4 (N. Jct)Widen to 5 lanes with landscaped median and 10' hike/bike pathwidening/relocationXXX
4357Bethany RdCincinnati Dayton to Butler WarrenWiden to 4 lanes and add bikepathwidening/relocationX
3735Cincinnati-Dayton RdMilliken Rd. to Monore South Corp. LineWiden by adding 1 lanewidening/relocation
3609River RdWilliams Ave to St Clair AveWiden by adding 1 lane with safety upgradeswidening/relocationX
3681N. Gilmore Rd.Holden Blvd. to Symmes Rd.Widen to 3 laneswidening/relocationXX
4867SR 177 - Main StreetCarmen to BrookwoodAdd 1 lane (Hamilton)widening/relocationXX
4869Black Street BridgeOver Great Miami RiverReplace 2 lane bridge with new 4 lane bridgebridgeX
4870Grand BlvdSR 4 to Five PointsWiden to 2 lanes each directionwidening/relocationXX
4871Tylersville RdBypass 4 to Five PointsAdd 3 laneswidening/relocationXXX
4865US 127Augusta to PattersonAdd laneswidening/relocationXX
4863S. Gilmore RdResor Road to Mack RoadAdd 1 lanewidening/relocationX
3662I-75Milliken RdNew interchange & widening Milliken from Cin-Day to Butler-Warrren Rdwidening/relocation
4859Hamilton-Mason Rdat Five PointsIntersection Improvementstraffic operations
4901BCRTA Oxford Multimodal Station & Transit FacilityChestnut & MainConstruct multimodal rail/bus/auto/bike station with transit operations facilitywidening/relocationbridgeXX
4857Tylersville RdI-75 rampsInterchange Modificationtraffic operations
4849Liberty InterchangeIR 75Interchange modificationtraffic operationsX
4356SORTA Liberty Twp. Park & Ride LotVicinity of SR 129 and Cincinnati-Dayton RoadUtilize ODOT/BCTID Liberty Twp P&R; extend Rt 42X to new location. Replace leased facility w new P&Rwidening/relocationbridgeX
4902BCRTA New Service connecting Hamilton and LibertyVicinity of SR 129 and Cincinnati-Dayton RoadAdd BCRTA service connection from Liberty Twp/Liberty Center to Market Street Station in Hamiltonwidening/relocationbridgeX
4875Wayne Madison Rdat Trenton RoadIntersection improvementtraffic operations
3709I-75Union Centre BlvdInterchange Modificationtraffic operations
Clermont County
2621Branch Hill - Guinea PikeSR 28 to Wards Corner Rd.Widen to 3 laneswidening/relocationXX
4363SR 32Glen Este-Withamsville to Old SR 74Grade separation and add 1 lane each direction to SR-32. PID: 82370widening/relocationXX
3701SR 32 (Frontage Rd)Bauer Rd. to Half Acre Rd.New three-lane frontage road with turn lanes at major intersections. PID: 82586widening/relocation
4894Aicholtz RdEastgate Blvd to Glen-Este-WithamsvilleAdd one lane each directionwidening/relocation
3331US 50/Roundbottom Rd IntersectionUS 50/Roundbottom Rd IntersectionUpgrade intersection, improve geometrytraffic operationsXX
3646SR 321000' west of existing Herold Rd. intersection on SR 32Replace intersection with new grade separated interchangewidening/relocation
4904CTC Park & Ride LotSR 125 between Amelia and I-275 interchangeAcquisition and construction of a new Park & Ride lot to include approximately 40 parking spaceswidening/relocationbridge
4371SR 32SR 32/Main St.interchange in Village of BataviaConvert existing half interchange to full.widening/relocationXX
Hamilton County
4381Eastern Corridor Oasis Line Segments 1, 2, 3 & 4Oasis Rail Line (downtown Cincinnati to Milford)Rail transit plus feeder bus. PID 86463widening/relocationbridgeX
4815Old Red Bank RdMedpace to Erie Ave.Rebuild bridge over RR and improve roadway with pedestrian facilitieswidening/relocationX
3773Wooster RdBeechmont Ave to Red Bank Rd.Add center turn lane and geometric improvementswidening/relocation
3615US 42 (Reading Rd)Dorchester to BurnetProvide 5 lanes and intersection improvementswidening/relocationXX
4932Miami 2 Miami - Lebanon to MonroeLebanon to Monroe18.9 miles - Combination of multi purpose path (off road), on street bike lanes, and shared roadbike/pedXXX
4933Miami 2 Miami - Mason to FranklinMason to Franklin18.5 miles - Combination of muli-purpose path (off road), on street bike lanes, and shared roadbike/pedXXX
1521New Haven RdI-74 to Harrison (City of Harrison)Continuation of road widening from bridgewidening/relocationX
1526Ebenezer RdWerk Road to Rapid Run Road (Green Township)Intersection Improvements, Realignment, widening to three laneswidening/relocationX
1510SR264City of Cincinnati/ Overlook to BoudinotIntersection improvements and turn lanestraffic operationsXXX
1512Anderson Ferry RoadDelhi/Delhi Pike to Cleves Warsaw RdProvide sidewalks on both sides of road, add lanes at selected locations, eliminate entrance/exit.traffic operationsXXX
1534Werk RdWestbourne Drive to Glenway AvenueImprove intersection with left/right turn lanestraffic operationsX
4930ORT West-Extension to Shawnee LookoutExtend from existing trail at Fernbank to the southern entrance of Shawnee LookoutMulti use pathbike/pedX
4372Brent Spence BridgeIR 71/IR 75 bridge over the Ohio River to interchange with Western Hills ViaductBridge replacement and highway improvements to accommodate new traffic patterns from/to new bridgebridgeXXX
4842Ohio River Trail - West - Segment 3State Avenue to Fairbanks AvenueConstruct bike/pedestrian trail connecting segments 1 and 2 of the Ohio River Trail West projectbike/ped
4916Great Parks - Little Miami Scenic Trail BridgeExtend northwest at Beechmont Ave to connect with Lunken and ArmlederMulti Use pathbike/pedX
4927Great Parks Winton Woods to Great Miami TrailConnect Winton Woods trail loop northwest to Fairfield extension of the Great Miami River TrailMulti Use Pathbike/pedXXX
1612Auburn AvenueDorchester to William Howard TaftImprove traffic operations, remove parking as necessary and improve intersectiontraffic operationsXX
3651Cheviot RdTallahassee to JessupAdd 1 lanewidening/relocationXX
3736Fields Ertel RdReed Hartman to IR 71 (Warren County-Butler Warren Rd to Wilkens Rd, widen to 5 lanesLane addition, roadway rehabilitation, access managementwidening/relocationXXX
3703I- 275US 52 to Five Mile RdAdd 1 lane each directionwidening/relocationX
3772Winton RdNorth Bend Rd to Timber TrailAdd one lanewidening/relocationXXX
4814Babson/Hetzel ConnectorTerminus of Babson Place to Old Red Bank RdNew connectionwidening/relocationX
4822Madison RdRidge to KennedyAdd left turn lanetraffic operations
4375US 42 (Reading Rd)Clinton Springs to PaddockAdd one lane & Intersection improvementswidening/relocationXXXXX
4921CincinnatiConnects-Ohio River Trail West ConnectorSmale Park to Mill CreekMulti use pathbike/ped
4846Mill Creek Trail - Phase 5Winton Terrace to Center Hill RoadShared Use Bike Pathbike/pedXXX
4844Wasson Way TrailMontgomery Road to WoosterSeparate shared use bike path
(cost includes $12M for ROW). Preserve transit option.
4848Ohio River Trail - East (Oasis)Carrel to DowntownSeparate shared use path along riverfront or on Oasisbike/ped
4918Great Parks - Oasis Rail TrailFollow out of service Oasis rail line and connect Lunken to Cincinnati riverfront park trailsMulti Use Path - rails to trailsbike/ped
4913US 42 (Lebanon Rd)I-275 to Crystal View CourtReconfigure interchange. Add NB to WB loop ramp, realign WB exit ramptraffic operationsX
4919MillCreek Greenway - Extension to Hamilton Co FairExtend existing trail terminus to Caldwell Park north to Hamilton Co FairgroundsMulti use pathbike/ped
4922West Fork Mill Creek GreenwayWinton Woods Connector + West Fork Mill Creek - Wyoming SegmentMulti use pathbike/pedXX
4929Ohio River Trail West - Extension to Fernbank ParkExtend from proposed CC trail at Millcreek west to Fernbank Park TrailMulti use pathbike/pedXXX
1543Kilby RdHarrison Avenue to US 50 (Whitewater and Harrison townships)Minor widening and add shoulders. Safety improvements at RR crossing.maintenance/reconstruction
1544Blue Rock RdOld Blue Rock to Sheed Road (Colerain Township)Additional through lane at intersection, Access Managementtraffic operationsX
3667North Bend RdKleeman to Westward Northern BlvdLane addition and intersection improvement @ W.N.Blvdwidening/relocationXX
1555Dry Fork RdI-74 to New Haven Road (City of Harrison)Widen Road, Paved shoulders, graded shouldersmaintenance/reconstruction
3338Ancor ConnectorBetween Broadwell Rd and SR 32, east of Roundbottom RdConstruct a new two-lane facility with appropriate turn laneswidening/relocation
3339E Sharon Rd Intersection ImprovementE Sharon Rd at the entrance/exit to the NS Sharon Yard and Medallion Dr in Sharonville/EvendaleAnalyze segment of E Sharon Rd, determine comprehensive strategy, and construct intersection improvtraffic operations
3359Western Hills ViaductWestern Hills viaduct spanning the CSX Queensgate YardIf replacement of viaduct is warranted, design new structure with fewer pilings.bridgeXX
4828Edwards, Madison, WassonEdwards, Madison, WassonInterection realignmentstraffic operationsXX
4845UptownM.L. King - Clifton to Harvey and Jefferson - Taft to M.L. KingShared use bike path/ROW improvementsbike/pedXXX
4983North Bend Park & RideNear North Bend Rd and I-74Off-street park and ride facilitywidening/relocationbridgeX
4984Midpointe Transit CenterNear Seymour and ReadingOff-street park and ride facilitywidening/relocationbridgeXXXX
4382Hopple St Passing Track and CrossoversCSX Queensgate and NS Gest Street YardsReconstruct portion of the Hopple St Viaduct to provide additional horizontal clearancewidening/relocationtraffic operations
4909Colerain Transit CenterNear Colerain Ave. and I-275Off-street park and ride and bus layover with new passenger amenitieswidening/relocationbridge
Warren County
3678SR 741Parkside to US 42Widen one lane each direction with center turn lanewidening/relocation
4394Bethany RdWest Mason Corp. Limit to Mason-Morrow-Millgrove Rd.Widen to 5 lanes and extend Bethany to Mason-Morrow-Millgrovewidening/relocationX
3631SR 48Miller Rd to SR 122Widen by adding one lane each directionwidening/relocationXXXX
1500Snider RdFields Ertel to Hunters Green DriveWiden one lane in each directionwidening/relocationXXX
3353Union Rd ImprovementsSR 63 to SR 123 interchangesWiden by 1 lane each directionwidening/relocationXX
3699SR 741SR 63 to Greentree RoadRelocate and widen by one lane each directionwidening/relocationXX
3740SR 48Mason-Morrow-Millgrove Road to Stephens Rd. (south of US 22/3)Widen by one lane in each directionwidening/relocationX
4398Mason Montgomery RdFields Ertel to Socialville Fosters RoadWiden one lane in each directionwidening/relocationXX
4810SR 48I-71 to Mason-Morrow-MillgroveAdd 1 lane each directionwidening/relocation
4811SR 48I-71 to Kings viewAdd 1 lane each directionwidening/relocation
3746Gateway BlvdGateway Blvd. Extension north from S.R. 63 to Union Road2 Lane Extensionwidening/relocationXX
3660Bikeway ConnectivityCity of Lebanon / City of MasonConnect Lebanon - Countryside YMCA Trail w/ City of Mason Trail System at Mason Morrow Millgrove Rdbike/ped
3698Mason-Morrow-Millgrove RdUS 42 to Columbia RoadWiden to 5 laneswidening/relocation
3713SR 63Union Road to SR 741Widen by one lane each directionwidening/relocationXX
3720SR 741SR 63 to US 42Widen by one lane in each directionwidening/relocationXX
3778Greentree RdSR 123 to Cox Road ExtenstionAdd one lane each directionwidening/relocationXX
3705Gateway BlvdGateway Blvd. Extension to Butler/Warren/Cox ExtensionFive lane extensionwidening/relocation

Kentucky County EJ Impacts

Boone County
4678KY 842 (Richardson Rd)US 25 to the Boone/Kenton County lineReplace bridge over NS railroadbridgeXX
4700US 25 (Dixie Hwy)KY 536 intersection and segment of US 25 from Beesom Dr to Aristocrat DrImprove safety and mobility and reduce congestion including multi-modes former 351.0traffic operationsXX
4657I-75I-275 interchange and its system-to-system rampsUpgrade interchangewidening/relocationX
4417TANK Airport HubGreater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky International AirportConstruct a Transit Hub near the CVG international airportwidening/relocationbridge
4656I-275Graves RdNew interchangewidening/relocation
4669KY 842KY 842 (Houston Rd/Hopeful Church Rd) intersectionImprove safety and reduce congestion by adding lanes on all four legs of the intersectiontraffic operations
4700US 25 (Dixie Hwy)KY 536 intersection and segment of US 25 from Beesom Dr to Aristocrat DrImprove safety and mobility and reduce congestion including multi-modes former 351.0traffic operationsXX
Campbell County
4981US 27Nunn Drive to Johns Hill RoadWiden to 3 through lanes southboundwidening/relocation
4977NKY Streetcar Phase 1NewportExtension of Cincinnati Streetcar to Newport (Phase 1)widening/relocationbridge
4658I-471US 27 to Ohio State lineWiden to four lanes to improve safety and reduce congestionwidening/relocationXX
4682US 27KY 1892 to KY 1120Reconstruct including multi-modal needsmaintenance/reconstructionX
4658I-471US 27 to Ohio State lineWiden to four lanes to improve safety and reduce congestionwidening/relocationXX
4663KY 9 (AA Hwy)I-275 InterchangeReconstructmaintenance/reconstructionXX
4426TANK NKU SuperstopNorthern Kentucky UniversityConstruct a Transit Hub (super station) at or near Northern Kentucky Universitywidening/relocationbridge
Kenton County
4685KY 16 (Taylor Mill Rd)KY 2047 (Senour Rd) to KY 536 (Harris Pike)Widen to 5 lanes, including multi-modal needswidening/relocation
4429Brent Spence BridgeI-71/I-75 bridge over the Ohio River to Dixie Hwy InterchangeBridge replacement and highway improvements to accommodate new traffic patterns from/to new bridgebridgeXXX
4675KY 536KY 17 (Madison Pike) to Staffordsburg Rd.Reconstruct on existing and new alignment with bike/ped facilities
KY 536 Scoping Study
4475Riverfront Commons Multi-use PathEntire city of Covington Ohio RiverfrontConstruct a multi-use path and retaining wallbike/pedX
4677KY 536Staffordsburg Rd. to Campbell County lineReconstruct on new alignment with multi use path as recommended by KY 536 Scoping Studywidening/relocation
4975KY 536Norfolk Southern RR bridge to KY 17Reconstruct on existing and new alignment.(Pre-construction funds in TIP 6-162.0)widening/relocationXX
4476US 25 (Dixie Hwy/Pike St)Boone County Line to Madison AvenueCreate a high-frequency, enhanced bus transit corridor with specialized brandingwidening/relocationbridgeXXX
4480I-71/75Brent Spence Bridge to Boone County LineBus on left shoulder projectwidening/relocationbridgeXXX
4673KY 1303 (Turkeyfoot Rd)Dudley to US 25 (Dixie Hwy)Dudley to I-275 add bike lane. I-275 to US25 widen to 4-laneswidening/relocationX
4473Madison Ave/KY 17Covington Transit Center to the TANK Fort Wright Transit HubCreate a high-frequency bus transit corridor, paint sharrows or shared lane markingswidening/relocationbridgeXXXXX
4472Licking River Greenway TrailE 8th and Garrard Street to E 15th St and Eastern AveConstruct Licking River Greenway Trail Phase IIIbike/pedXXX
4655KY 8 (Fourth St)US 25 (Main St) to KY 3090 (Philadelphia St) in CovingtonMinor wideningmaintenance/reconstruction
4661KY 8 (Fourth St Bridge)Garrard St (Covington) to Fourth St (Newport)Replace the bridge including multi-modal accommodationsbridgeX
4664KY 842 (Richardson Rd)Boone/Kenton County Line to KY 1303 (Turkeyfoot Rd)Minor wideningmaintenance/reconstructionXX
4666KY 1303 (Turkeyfoot Rd)Crestview Hills Mall Rd and Thomas Moore Pkwy intersectionsRelocate the intersection of Crestview Hill Mall Rd to improve traffic flowwidening/relocation
4483Edgewood Park & Ride LotThomas Moore Pkwy and Dudley Rd intersectionConstruct a Park and Ride facility with shelter/waiting area and parkingwidening/relocationbridge
4660KY 371 (Buttermilk Pike/Orphanage Rd)Intersection of KY 371 (Buttermilk Pike/Orphanage Rd) and US 25 (Dixie Hwy)Align Orphanage Rd and Buttermilk Pike at US 25 including enhanced multi-modal facilitieswidening/relocation

Indiana County EJ Impacts

Dearborn County
4964SR 1From US-50 to west of Ridge/BelleviewReconstruct including realignment, roundabouts, and widening. Includes US-50 intersection.traffic operations


In regards to commuting to work, the results of this impact assessment found that:

  • Between 2010 and 2040, travel times to work will increase for all populations and EJ populations, with or without the Plan.
  • However, 2040 auto travel times will be shorter for EJ populations in comparison to the total population.

 Average Travel Time by Auto to Work (in minutes) – EJ Populations

Population Group20102040 Base2040 Plan
All Populations
Low Income28.8

The proximity of EJ communities to areas containing healthcare, post-secondary education and shopping was measured by post-processing results of OKI’s Travel Demand Model. In regards to these non-work trips, the impact assessment of the 2040 Plan projects reported that:

  • In comparison to 2010, 2040 travel times by auto will increase for all populations with or without implementation of 2040 Plan projects.
  • However, with the implementation of 2040 Plan projects, auto travel time will be less or stay the same for all populations.
  • In addition, 2040 auto travel times are shorter for EJ populations in comparison to the total population.

Non-Work Average Travel Time by Auto (in minutes) – EJ Populations


Population Group
2040 Base
2040 Plan
All Populations
Low Income4.7
Zero Car Households1.9

Post-Secondary Education

Population Group
2040 Base
2040 Plan
All Populations
Low Income6.1
Zero Car Households


Population Group
2040 Base
2040 Plan
All Populations
Low Income4.2
Zero Car Households


The transit recommendations in this Plan include improved bus service on high priority transit corridors, creation of additional bus transfer hubs and Park & Ride facilities, extension of streetcar service to Northern Kentucky and the Oasis Line Rail transit.

This plan successfully improves accessibility of residents of EJ communities to other parts of the region. Public transit improvements provide significant enhancements to the overall accessibility to jobs, healthcare, shopping, and post-secondary education.

Over $5.8 billion, nearly 85% of the total recommended expenditures, are within EJ communities. A breakdown of this total investment shows that:


Bridge Replacement


Roadway Capacity Improvements


Improved Transit

Percent of 2040 Plan Transportation Investments Serving:

  • Environmental Justice Populations 85% 85%
  • Non-Environmental Justice Populations 15% 15%

Breakdown of 2040 Plan Recommendations Serving EJ Populations by Project Purpose

  • Bridges 58% 58%
  • Roadway Capacity 23% 23%
  • Transit 7% 7%
  • Traffic Operations 6% 6%
  • Bicycle/Pedestrian 3% 3%
  • Roadway Construction 3% 3%

These expanded public transportation options will be especially important to the region’s EJ communities. For example, the region’s increasing elderly population will require new transportation options to prevent increased isolation from society. Improved public transportation may allow for aging in place. The combination of transportation and land use planning is another critical element in serving populations throughout their entire life cycle, through more dense and mixed use development. The fact that one could walk to retail, medical, social and employment opportunities without the need of any vehicular transportation, supports a vibrant, diverse, and inclusive community.


Through this quantitative and qualitative EJ assessment, OKI finds no adverse or disproportionate impacts on EJ communities. The future quantifiable benefits from the implementation of this 2040 Plan appear to be equitably distributed. There is no evidence that any one group of citizens is over or under served. Transit supply and service clearly favor the urbanized areas where density of employment and population make bus service more efficient. Throughout the region, EJ communities appear to be well served.

Another measure of equity may be the number of families and businesses displaced during the implementation of transportation projects. OKI supports projects that minimize the impacts on all segments of the population and encourages appropriate mitigation measures when such impacts are unavoidable.

Care must also be taken to avoid not only displacement, but also the damage to neighborhood social fabric which can be caused when implementing transportation projects. Erecting physical and psychological barriers, whether intended or not, can destroy the cohesiveness of communities. OKI supports projects that minimize the impacts on a neighborhood’s quality of life. Appropriate mitigation measures should be part of the project when such impacts are unavoidable.